Diabetes is manly a metabolic disorder that is caused when the body is not capable to absorb broken down carbohydrates and sugar rising blood sugar hyperglycemia. It is related to the body ability to produce a hormone called insulin. The insulin hormone stimulates the glucose’s intake by the digestion of carbohydrates into the body tissue.
If insulin becomes ineffective or produced in a small amount the body becomes resistant to it causing a metabolic disorder.
The latest condition of diabetes is hyperglycemia that can cause many complications like kidney problems, stroke, loss of vision, and in serious cases also death. Diabetes can be classified in two types: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’ s immune system destroy the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas.
Types 2 diabetes is caused by the excessive resistance of the body to the insulin due to excessive consumption of carbs and sugar. This is the reason why diabetes type 2 can affect more people with obesity and overweight issues.
Prediabetes and diagnosis
Prediabetes is the first type of diabetes development when the body cannot process the sugar properly and the glucose level raises in the blood. In prediabetes however the level of sugar in the blood is still not enough to be considered full-blown diabetes.
People with prediabetes, usually don’t have any symptoms so it is quite important to diagnose it soon as possible, in order to prevent the outcome of diabetes. Even if it is difficult to determine the correct period that prediabetes takes to get worse, it has been estimated a period from 2 to 5 years before it can become diabetes 2.
Other risk factors to develop prediabetes include high blood pressure, high bad cholesterol levels, genetic transmission, polycystic ovarian syndrome. The most important criteria to determine the level of any glucose metabolic disorder is to measure the blood sugar level by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
With this type of test two tests are done between two hours to one each other, keeping the patients without taking any food or drink and avoiding moving a lot. On the base of the amounts of glucose found after a glucose dose during the test, the doctor will be able to check the type of glucose intolerance that affects the patient and if the condition is also confirmed as diabetes mellitus.
The symptoms are caused by hyperglycemia and if they are not treated properly they can cause serious problems to our health. They are usually common for both males and females with few gender exceptions.
Some common symptoms are:
A strong thirsty feeling caused by water passed at a higher rate with high blood sugar.
Tiredness – As the right amounts of glucose is not reaching the cells from the blood streams the person can get easily tired.
Blurred vision – Excess amounts of sugar in the blood can harm the blood vessels in the eyes causing blurred vision and impaired vision in the long term.
Numbness and tingling – High blood sugar can also damage bodies’ nerves supplies causing tingling and numbness in the limbs.
Delayed healing – An excessive amounts of sugar in the blood can decrease the amounts of blood flow in the blood vessels.
Infections – High amounts of glucose in the blood can also facilitate in the body the spread of various type of bacteria and fungus.
How diabetes can be treated ?
At the present time there isn’t still a permanent cure for it . However, it can be controlled to a level in which many signs and symptoms can be reversed by reducing the strain of the body to produce insulin.
Change your lifestyle is the first step to control diabetes and to improve your physical and mental condition in general.
Some basic steps to take might relate to:
Regular physical activity – To increase your insulin sensitivity, to burn excess calories and to lose weight.
Reduce the carbohydrate intake – To reduce the production of insulin and the increment of blood sugar levels.
Increase fiber intake – Dietary fiber can help to substitute carbs intake and still give a sense of fullness.
Increase water intake – Drinking a sustainable amounts of water helps the kidneys to better filter the blood ensuring the excessive sugar is flushed out with the urine.
Reduce food portions – Reducing calories intake helps to reduce weight and also to control blood sugar spikes.
Improving your lifestyle can be not enough to treat diabetes 2 as patients might need to take some medication specific for diabetes. It is important to be guided by a physician specialized to treat metabolic disorders. I have illustrated below few medications that are prescribed usually for diabetes 2 treatment only for information purpose:
Meglitinides – Can stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin acting faster, but with short duration.
Insulin – it is usually injected to allow cells to use glucose.
GLP – 1 receptor agonists – They help to slow digestion and to lower sugar levels in the blood.
Metformin – It improves body’s sensitivity to insulin, lowering the production of glucose in the liver
Sulfonylureas – It improves the production of the insulin in the body.
SGLT2 Inhibitors – They help the kidney to not reabsorb the sugar in the blood.
To sum up
Diabetes is a serious condition which affects millions of people around the world. However, if kept under control with medication and a healthy life style it can be reversed to almost eliminate all the signs and symptoms.
Being overweight or obese, eating unhealthy food and a sedentary life can increase the chance to get diabetes 2.
Prediabetes is a first type of diabetes in which the sugar level is not enough to be considered diabetes 1 even if, it can be considered a starting point to change lifestyle and to reduce the amounts of sugar intakes. There are a lot of test available to check the type of glucose intolerance and it is recommended to discuss with your doctor or a specialist on a plan to properly treat it.
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